This page contains a list of research studies that have been referenced in 4thWaveNow posts and/or comments. As of June 28, 2017, this is a new aspect of the site, and will be an ongoing work-in-progress. We will be adding to and updating this archive in the near future. Cited studies are listed by last name of first author.

Suggestions/link submissions from readers are welcome!  Please submit the URL and a short descriptor in the comments below, and please try to find a publicly available version of any study you suggest, if you can.

Aitken, Evidence for an Altered Sex Ratio in Clinic-referred Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria, J. Sex. Med. 2015 12:756-763, PDF can be downloaded from (change in boy-girl ratio of referrals to gender clinics)

Auer, Transgender Transitioning and Change of Self-Reported Sexual Orientation, PLoS One. 2014; 9(10): e110016,  (no direct correlation between endogenous hormones and orientation but doesn’t rule out relationship)

Barrett, Disorders of gender identity, Advances in Psychiatric Treatment Aug 2011, 17 (5) 381-388; DOI: 10.1192/apt.bp.109.007484,  See for Barrett back-track in 2016.

Barrett-Connor, The Association of Testosterone Levels with Overall Sleep Quality, Sleep Architecture, and Sleep-Disordered Breathing, J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Jul; 93(7): 2602–2609,

Bartlett, Is Gender Identity Disorder in Children a Mental Disorder? Sex Roles December 2000, Volume 43, Issue 11, pp 753–785, non-paywall version here: – critiquing DSM IV and the diagnosis of GID as fundamentally flawed and homophobic; contains numerous citations to studies indicating that gender dysphoria in children is generally transient.

Bearman, The Skinny on Body Dissatisfaction: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Girls and Boys, J Youth Adolesc. 2006 Apr; 35(2): 217–229,  (not specifically trans-related but identifies stages at which adolescents most strongly identify with gender roles and connection to anorexia)

Becker, Characteristics of children and adolescents with gender dysphoria referred to the Hamburg Gender Identity Clinic, Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr. 2014, changing rates of referrals to gender clinics.

Brincat, Skin Collagen Changes in Postmenopausal Women Receiving Different Regimens of Estrogen Therapy, Obstetrics & Gynecology: July 1987,

Brummelman, Origins of narcissism in children,

Campo, Psychiatric Comorbidity of Gender Identity Disorders: A Survey Among Dutch Psychiatrists, American Journal of Psychiatry, Volume 160, Issue 7, July 2003, pp. 1332-1336,

Colizzi, Dissociative symptoms in individuals with gender dysphoria: is the elevated prevalence real?, Psychiatry Res. 2015 Mar 30;226(1):173-80. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2014.12.045,

Couse, Characterization of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in Estrogen Receptor (ER) Null Mice Reveals Hypergonadism and Endocrine Sex Reversal in Females Lacking ERα But Not ERβ, Mol Endocrinol (2003) 17 (6): 1039-1053,

Cummins, Pituitary down-regulation using leuprolide for the intensive ovulation management of poor prognosis patients having in vitro fertilization (IVF)-related treatments, Journal of in Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer, December 1989, Volume 6, Issue 6, pp 345–352,

D’Occhio, Relationship between Serum Testosterone Concentration and Patterns of Luteinizing Hormone Secretion in Male Sheep, Endocrinology (1982) 110 (5): 1547-1554,

De Vries, Autism Spectrum Disorders in Gender Dysphoric Children and Adolescents, J Autism Dev Disord. 2010 Aug; 40(8): 930–936,  (increased rate of autism in children referred to gender clinics)

De Vries, Puberty Suppression in Adolescents With Gender Identity Disorder: A Prospective Follow-Up Study, jsm_1943 1..8,

De Vries, Young Adult Psychological Outcome After Puberty Suppression and Gender Reassignment, Pediatrics September 2014, (pro-puberty suppression)  (discussed in detail in

Dheine, Long-Term Follow-Up of Transsexual Persons Undergoing Sex Reassignment Surgery: Cohort Study in Sweden, PLoS One. 2011; 6(2): e16885, “Persons with transsexualism, after sex reassignment, have considerably higher risks for mortality, suicidal behaviour, and psychiatric morbidity than the general population. Our findings suggest that sex reassignment, although alleviating gender dysphoria, may not suffice as treatment for transsexualism, and should inspire improved psychiatric and somatic care after sex reassignment for this patient group.”  (Largest sample size of any study to date.)

Dhejne, Mental health and gender dysphoria: A review of the literature, International Review of Psychiatry 28(1):44-57 · January 2016,

Diefenbach, Portrayal of Lobotomy in the Popular Press: 1935-1960, Journal of the History of the Neurosciences 0964-704X/99/0801-060$15.00 1999, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 60–69,

Dorrington, Effects of follicle-stimulating hormone on cultures of sertoli cell preparations, Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 3, Issue 1, July 1975, Pages 57-70,

Dreger, The Controversy Surrounding the Man Who Would Be Queen, Archives of Sexual Behavior 2008 Jun; 37(3): 366–421, , academic treatment of Michael Bailey’s work on transsexualism.  The book itself may be found here:  More on Dreger’s resignation from Northwestern University:

Drescher, Ethical issues raised by the treatment of gender-variant prepubescent children, Hastings Cent Rep. 2014 Sep;44 Suppl 4:S17-22. doi: 10.1002/hast.365, “gender dysphoria in childhood does not inevitably continue into adulthood, and only 6 to 23 percent of boys and 12 to 27 percent of girls treated in gender clinics showed persistence of their gender dysphoria into adulthood.”

Drummond, A follow-up study of girls with gender identity disorder, Dev Psychol. 2008 Jan;44(1):34-45. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.44.1.34, “At follow-up, 3 participants (12%) were judged to have GID or gender dysphoria. Regarding sexual orientation, 8 participants (32%) were classified as bisexual/homosexual in fantasy, and 6 (24%) were classified as bisexual/homosexual in behavior. The remaining participants were classified as either heterosexual or asexual… It is conceivable that the childhood criteria for GID may “scoop in” girls who are at relatively low risk for adolescent/adult gender dysphoria that revolves so much around somatic indicators.”

Durwood, Mental Health and Self-Worth in Socially Transitioned Transgender Youth, Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, February 2017Volume 56, Issue 2, Pages 116–123.e2,

Elamin, Effect of sex steroid use on cardiovascular risk in transsexual individuals: a systematic review and meta-analyses, Clinical Endocrinology 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2009.03632.x, low quality evidence, downgraded due to methodological limitations of included studiesimprecision and heterogeneity, suggests that cross‐sex hormone therapies increase serum triglycerides in MF and FM and have a trivial effect on HDL‐cholesterol and systolic blood pressure in FM. Data about patient important outcomes are sparse and inconclusive.”

Emi, Increased arterial stiffness in female-to-male transsexuals treated with androgen, J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2008 Oct;34(5):890-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1447-0756.2008.00857.x,

Enter, Single dose testosterone administration alleviates gaze avoidance in women with Social Anxiety Disorder, Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2016 Jan;63:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.09.008,

Feuillan, Reproductive Axis after Discontinuation of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analog Treatment of Girls with Precocious Puberty: Long Term Follow-Up Comparing Girls with Hypothalamic Hamartoma to Those with Idiopathic Precocious Puberty, J Clin Endocrinol Metab (1999) 84 (1): 44-49,

Fuss, Gender dysphoria in children and adolescents: a review of recent research, Current Opinion in Psychiatry: November 2015 – Volume 28 – Issue 6 – p 430–434 doi: 10.1097/YCO.0000000000000203, (kids with ASD hold more rigid views of gender)

Gerrit, Gender Identity and Autism Spectrum Disorders, Yale J Biol Med. 2015 Mar; 88(1): 81–83, – summary of literature treating gender identity in patients on ASD spectrum; “critical shortcomings in our current understanding.”  “In a study of pre-pubertal male and female children with gender dysphoria followed-up approximately 10 years later, only 27 percent of children with gender dysphoria remained gender dysphoric at follow-up. Of those individuals who no longer expressed gender dysphoria at follow-up, a significant portion (all female and half the male participants) expressed a non-heterosexual sexual orientation. Thus, gender concerns in neurotypical children prior to puberty may represent a developmental process related to both gender and sexuality for many individuals. ”

Giedd, Brain development during childhood and adolescence: a longitudinal MRI study, Nature Neuroscience 2, 861 – 863 (1999) , doi:10.1038/13158,

Giordano, Lives in a chiaroscuro. Should we suspend the puberty of children with gender identity disorder? Journal of Medical Ethics, Volume 34, Issue 8, “This paper argues that suspension of puberty is not only not unethical: if it is likely to improve the child’s quality of life and even save his or her life, then it is indeed unethical to defer treatment.”

Glidden, Gender Dysphoria and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review of the Literature, Sexual Medicine Reviews, (very little knowledge about treating gender dysphoric people who are also on the autism spectrum)

Glode, Long-term suppression of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone by daily administration of leuprolide, The Journal of Urology [01 Jan 1987, 137(1):57-60],

Goddings, The relationship between puberty and social emotion processing, Dev Sci. 2012 Nov; 15(6): 801–811. doi:  10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01174.x,

Gould, THE CONTAGION OF SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR, Contagion of Violence: Workshop Summary,

Green, Banning Therapy to Change Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity in Patients Under 18, Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Online, Vol. 45, Issue 1, 1 Mar 2017,

Gunstad, Axis I Comorbidity in Body Dysmorphic Disorder, Compr Psychiatry. 2003; 44(4): 270–276.,

Guo, Testosterone administration inhibits hepcidin transcription and is associated with increased iron incorporation into red blood cells, Aging Cell, Volume 12, Issue 2, pages 280–291, April 2013,

Haas, Suicide and Suicide Risk in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Populations: Review and Recommendations, Journal of Homosexuality, Volume 58, 2010 – Issue 1: Suicide, Mental Health, and Youth Development,

Hembree, Endocrine Treatment of Transsexual Persons:An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline, J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2009) 94 (9): 3132-3154, (“high rate of remission”).

Hepp, Psychiatric comorbidity in gender identity disorder, Journal of Psychosomatic Research 58(3):259-61 · April 2005,

Herek, Correlates of Internalized Homophobia in a Community Sample of Lesbians and Gay Men, Journal of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association, 1997, 2, 17-25,  (discussed in detail in

Heylens, Gender Identity Disorder in Twins: A Review of the Case Report Literature, The Journal of Sexual Medicine, December 2011,  “Whatever the precise contributions of nature v. nurture that leads to gender dysphoria or opposite-sex identification, a huge majority (if not 100%) of the studied individuals exhibit same-sex attraction by adolescence or adulthood.”

Hines, Prenatal testosterone and gender-related behavior, European Journal of Endocrinology,  (discussed in

Hugues, Frequent Use of Social Networking Sites Is Associated with Poor Psychological Functioning Among Children and Adolescents, Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. July 2015, Vol. 18, No. 7: 380-385

Huirne, Gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor antagonists, The Lancet, Volume 358, No. 9295, p1793–1803, 24 November 2001,

Imwalle, Lack of functional estrogen receptor β influences anxiety behavior and serotonin content in female mice, Physiology & Behavior Volume 84, Issue 1, 31 January 2005, Pages 157–163,

Jeffries, The Transgendering of Children: Gender Eugenics, Women’s Studies International Forum 35 (2012) 384–393,

Joel, Queering gender: studying gender identity in ‘normative’ individuals, Psychology & Sexuality September 2013,

Jones, Brief Report: Female-To-Male Transsexual People and Autistic Traits, J Autism Dev Disord (2012) 42:301–306, (FTM girls on spectrum)

Journal of Homosexuality, The Treatment of Gender Dysphoric/Gender Variant (GD/GV) Children and Adolescents (special issue entirely devoted to topic), Vol. 59 (2012)  See this article: Schwartz, Listening to Children Imagining Gender: Observing the Inflation of an Idea

Kaltiala-Heino Two years of gender identity service for minors: overrepresentation of natal girls with severe problems in adolescent development, Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2015; 9: 9, “The number of referrals exceeded expectations in light of epidemiological knowledge. Natal girls were markedly overrepresented among applicants. Severe psychopathology preceding onset of gender dysphoria was common. Autism spectrum problems were very common.”

Kaplan, Treatment of homosexuality during apartheid, BMJ. 2004 Dec 18; 329(7480): 1415–1416,

Kim, Know-How of the Hormonal Therapy and the Effect of the Male Hormone on Uterus in the Female to Male Transsexuals,  (open access paper with iffy English translation from Korean)

Korte, Gender Identity Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2008 Nov; 105(48): 834–841,!po=45.0000Multiple longitudinal studies provide evidence that gender-atypical behavior in childhood often leads to a homosexual orientation in adulthood, but only in 2.5% to 20% of cases to a persistent gender identity disorder (3, 6, 22). Even among children who manifest a major degree of discomfort with their own sex, including an aversion to their own genitalia (GID in the strict sense), only a minority go on to an irreversible development of transsexualism.”

Korte, The Treatment of Gender Identity (Gender Dysphoria) Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence – Open-Outcome Psychotherapeutic Support or Early Setting of Therapy Course with the Introduction of Hormonal Therapy?, Sexuologie 23 (3–4) 2016 117–132 / DGSMTW,

Kowalik, Ovarian estradiol production in vivo. Inhibitory effect of leuprolide acetate, The Journal of Reproductive Medicine [01 May 1998, 43(5):413-417],

Kumar, Follicle stimulating hormone is required for ovarian follicle maturation but not male fertility, Nature Genetics  15, 201 – 204 (1997) doi:10.1038/ng0297-201,

Lai, Biological sex affects the neurobiology of autism, Brain, Volume 136, Issue 9, September 2013 “This study seeks to answer two questions about how autism is modulated by biological sex at the level of the brain: (i) is the neuroanatomy of autism different in males and females? and (ii) does the neuroanatomy of autism fit predictions from the ‘extreme male brain’ theory of autism, in males and/or in females?”

Laios, Suicide in ancient Greece, Psychiatriki. 2014 Jul-Sep;25(3):200-7,

Lament, Transgender Children Conundrums and Controversies— An Introduction to the Section (three papers introducing the topic of transgender children in The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child),

Langer, How dresses can make you mentally ill: Examining gender identity disorder in children, Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, February 2004, “Gender atypicality varies over time and… should not be pathologized.”

Lawrence, Shame and Narcissistic Rage in Autogynephilic Transsexualism, Arch Sex Behav (2008) 37:457–461,  (transgender people at increased risk of developing narcissistic disorders)

Li, Childhood gender-typed behavior and adolescent sexual orientation: A longitudinal population-based study, Dev Psychol. 2017 Apr;53(4):764-777. doi: 10.1037/dev0000281. Epub 2017 Feb 20, Study of nearly 5000 young people. Gender nonconforming behavior in early childhood was strongly predictive of adolescent homosexuality. “Levels of gender-typed behavior at ages 3.5 and 4.75 years, although less so at age 2.5 years, significantly and consistently predicted adolescents’ sexual orientation at age 15 years… These results suggest that the factors contributing to the link between childhood gender-typed behavior and sexual orientation emerge during early development. Some of those factors are likely to be nonsocial, because nonheterosexual individuals appear to diverge from gender norms regardless of social encouragement to conform to gender roles.”


Lykouras, Suicidal behaviour in the ancient Greek and Roman world, Asian J Psychiatr. 2013 Dec;6(6):548-51. doi: 10.1016/j.ajp.2013.08.001,

Maglione, Breast cancer in male-to-female transsexuals: use of breast imaging for detection, AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2014 Dec;203(6):W735-40. doi: 10.2214/AJR.14.12723,

Martos, Variations in Sexual Identity Milestones Among Lesbians, Gay Men, and Bisexuals, Sexuality Research and Social Policy, March 2015, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 24–33,  (discussed in detail in

Meier, Measures of clinical health among female-to-male transgender persons as a function of sexual orientation, Arch Sex Behav. 2013 Apr;42(3):463-74. doi: 10.1007/s10508-012-0052-2. Epub 2013 Jan 10,  (cross-sex hormones have the potential to alter a person’s sexual orientation)

Meyer, Gender Identity Disorder: An Emerging Problem for Pediatricians, Commentary PEDIATRICS Volume 129, Number 3, March 2012 (open access here:

Milrod, Age Is Just a Number: WPATH-Affiliated Surgeons’ Experiences and Attitudes Toward Vaginoplasty in Transgender Females Under 18 Years of Age in the United States, DOI:, “A rising number of female-affirmed transgender adolescents are being treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues and subsequently cross-sex hormones at early or mid-puberty, with vaginoplasty as the presumed final step in their physical transition. But, despite the minimum age of 18 years defining eligibility to undergo this irreversible procedure, anecdotal reports have shown that vaginoplasties are being performed on minors by surgeons in the United States, thereby contravening the World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) standards of care (SOC).” Discussed in detail in

Milrod, How Young is Too Young: Ethical Concerns in Genital Surgery of the Transgender MTF Adolescent (2014 Review); J Sex Med. 2014 Feb;11(2):338-46, can be downloaded from

Moon, 17β-Estradiol Biosynthesis in Cultured Granulosa and Thecal Cells of Human Ovarian Follicles: Stimulation by Follicle-Stimulating Hormone, J  Clin Endocrinol Metab (1978) 47 (2): 263-267,

Namba, Phantom erectile penis after sex reassignment surgery, Acta Med Okayama. 2008 Jun;62(3):213-6,

Neto, Gender reassignment surgery – a 13 year review of surgical outcomes, Int. braz j urol. vol.38 no.1 Rio de Janeiro Jan./Feb. 2012, (332 MTF patients)

Nuttbrock, Psychiatric Impact of Gender-Related Abuse Across the Life Course of Male-to-Female Transgender Persons, JOURNAL OF SEX RESEARCH, 47(1), 12–23, 2010,  (social disapproval for gender non-conformance peaks during teen years and gradually decreases)

Oakley, Concepts and implications of altruism bias and pathological altruism, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309, (relevant to motivations of pro-trans professionals and researchers)

Obernolte, The role of specific experiences in childhood and youth in the development of body integrity identity disorder (BIID), American Journal of Applied Psychology, published online January 08, 2015 ( doi: 10.11648/j.ajap.20150401.11 ISSN: 2328-5664 (Print); ISSN: 2328-5672 (Online), (analogous mental condition).

Olson, Baseline Physiologic and Psychosocial Characteristics of Transgender Youth Seeking Care for Gender Dysphoria, Journal of Adolescent Medicine, October 2015 Volume 57, Issue 4, Pages 374–380 (discussed in detail at

Olson, Gender Cognition in Transgender Children, Psychological Science, Vol 26, Issue 4, 2015,  (discussed in detail at

Ostlund, Estrogen Receptor Gene Expression in Relation to Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume 1007, Steroids and the Nervous System pages 54–63, December 2003,

Payne, Luteinizing Hormone Receptors and Testosterone Synthesis in Two Distinct Populations of Ley dig Cells, Endocrinology (1980) 106 (5): 1424-1429,

Peitzmeier, Health impact of chest binding among transgender adults: a community-engaged, cross-sectional study, Journal of Culture, Health & Sexuality Volume 19, 2017,  “Over 97% [of study participants] reported at least one of 28 negative outcomes attributed to binding.”

Phillips, Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in body dysmorphic disorder,   J Clin Psychiatry. 2005 Jun;66(6):717-25,

Pieper, Dependence of Pituitary Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Receptors on GnRH Secretion from the Hypothalamus, Endocrinology (1982) 110 (3): 749-753,

Pridmore, Suicide Triggers Described by Herodotus, Iran J Psychiatry. 2016 Apr;11(2):128-32,

Rang, The receptor concept: pharmacology’s big idea, Br J Pharmacol. 2006 Jan; 147(Suppl 1): S9–S16,

Rashid, Phalloplasty: The dream and the reality, Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery, 2013,;year=2013;volume=46;issue=2;spage=283;epage=293;aulast=Rashid

Roberts, Childhood Gender Nonconformity: A Risk Indicator for Childhood Abuse and Posttraumatic Stress in Youth, PEDIATRICS (ISSN Numbers: Print, 0031-4005; Online, 1098-4275),  (gender non-conforming children and teens at higher risk for PTSD)

Rockwell, Being a Celebrity: A Phenomenology of Fame, Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 40(2):178-210 · October 2009,

Rodd, Action of Estradiol on Epiphyseal Growth Plate Chondrocytes, Calcified Tissue International September 2004, Volume 75, Issue 3, pp 214–224,

Rowniak, Transmen: The HIV Risk of Gay Identity, Nursing and Health Professions Faculty Research and Publications 2011

Sadjadi, The Endocrinologist’s Office—Puberty Suppression: Saving Children from a Natural Disaster? J Med Humanit (2013) 34:255–260, DOI 10.1007/s10912-013-9228-6 (can be downloaded from “The goal of this short analysis is not to argue against puberty suppression but to draw attention to complexities overshadowed by the narrative of saving children from the looming disaster of puberty and from future abject lives as transgender adults, as told by some advocates of treatment.”

Savic, Sex Dimorphism of the Brain in Male-to-Female Transsexuals, Cerebral Cortex November 2011;21:2525–2533 doi:10.1093/cercor/bhr032,  (difference in brains likely due to homosexuality rather than transgender)

Selcuk, Testosterone levels of children with a diagnosis of developmental stuttering, Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2015; 11: 793–798,  (impact of testosterone on communications)

Sher, Testosterone levels in suicide attempters with bipolar disorder, J Psychiatr Res. 2012 Oct; 46(10): 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.06.016.,

Singh, A FOLLOW-UP STUDY OF BOYS WITH GENDER IDENTITY DISORDER  (PhD thesis) Department of Human Development and Applied Psychology Ontario Institute for Studies in Education University of Toronto (2012),  (study indicating that only about 12% of boys studied persisted in transgender identity at age 17).  Singh comments on her study here:

Sisk, Pubertal hormones organize the adolescent brain and behavior, Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 26 (2005) 163–174,

Smitz, Pituitary gonadotrophin secretory capacity during the luteal phase in superovulation using GnRH-agonists and HMG in a desensitization or flare-up protocol, Hum Reprod (1992) 7 (9): 1225-1229,

Steensma, Desisting and persisting gender dysphoria after childhood: a qualitative follow-up study, Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2011 Oct;16(4):499-516. doi: 10.1177/1359104510378303. Epub 2011 Jan 7,  (the “Dutch study” strongly cautioning against social transition for children under age 10 and showing that early social transition makes it more difficult for kids to desist).  Commentary here:  Source of funding for this study:  Steensma’s Letter to the Editor: “Gender Transitioning before Puberty?”

Steensma, Factors associated with desistence and persistence of childhood gender dysphoria: a quantitative follow-up study, J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013 Jun;52(6):582-90. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2013.03.016. Epub 2013 May 3,  (socially transitioning a child makes it greatly more likely they will persist)

Steers, Seeing Everyone Else’s Highlight Reels: How Facebook Usage is Linked to Depressive Symptoms, Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology: Vol. 33, No. 8, pp. 701-731,

Stegmann, Unique ethical and legal implications of fertility preservation research in the pediatric population, Fertility and Sterility, Volume 93, Issue 4, Pages 1037–1039,

Steinberg, Cognitive and affective development in adolescence, TRENDS in Cognitive Sciences Vol.9 No.2 February 2005, (“judgment, decision-making, and awareness of future risks and rewards does not reach maturity in the human brain until the early 20s”).

Stotzer, Violence Against Transgender People: A Review of United States Data,
Aggression And Violent Behavior  Volume:14  Issue:3  Dated:May/June 2009,

Strang, Initial Clinical Guidelines for Co-Occurring Autism Spectrum Disorder and Gender Dysphoria or Incongruence in Adolescents, Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology,

Tironi, Legal Restrictions on Decision Making for Children with Life-Threatening Illnesses—CAPTA and the Ashley Treatment, Virtual Mentor. July 2010, Volume 12, Number 7: 564-568,

Tishelman, Serving Transgender Youth: Challenges, Dilemmas and Clinical Examples, Prof Psychol Res Pr. 2015; 46(1): 37–45,

Van den Beld, Measures of Bioavailable Serum Testosterone and Estradiol and Their Relationships with Muscle Strength, Bone Density, and Body Composition in Elderly Men, J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2000) 85 (9): 3276-3282,

Vanderlaan, Do children with gender dysphoria have intense/obsessional interests? J Sex Res. 2015;52(2):213-9. doi: 10.1080/00224499.2013.860073. Epub 2014 Feb 21,

Van Schalkwyk, Gender Identity and Autism Spectrum Disorders, Yale J Biol Med. 2015 Mar; 88(1): 81–83,

Victor, Mitochondrial impairment and oxidative stress in leukocytes after testosterone administration to female-to-male transsexuals, J Sex Med. 2014 Feb;11(2):454-61. doi: 10.1111/jsm.12376. Epub 2013 Nov 20,

Voon, Neural Correlates of Sexual Cue Reactivity in Individuals with and without Compulsive Sexual Behaviours, PLoS ONE 9(7): e102419. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0102419, (discussing formation of sexual disorders)

Vrouenraets, Early Medical Treatment of Children and Adolescents With Gender Dysphoria: An Empirical Ethical Study, J Adolesc Health. 2015 Oct;57(4):367-73. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.04.004. Epub 2015 Jun 25, (survey of gender clinics shows no consensus amongst gender specialists that current treatment protocol is the way to go).  Link to full study:

Wallien, Peer Group Status of Gender Dysphoric Children: A Sociometric Study, Arch Sex Behav. 2010 Apr; 39(2): 553–560,  (children will be more accepted by the members of the sex with which they share interests)

Wallien, Psychosexual outcome of gender-dysphoric children J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2008 Dec;47(12):1413-23. doi: 10.1097/CHI.0b013e31818956b9 “Most children with gender dysphoria will not remain gender dysphoric after puberty. Children with persistent GID are characterized by more extreme gender dysphoria in childhood than children with desisting gender dysphoria. With regard to sexual orientation, the most likely outcome of childhood GID is homosexuality or bisexuality.”

Witt, Parental Influence on Children’s Socialization to Gender Roles, Adolescence, Summer, 1997, “an androgynous gender role orientation may be more beneficial to children than strict adherence to traditional gender roles.”

Wren, Thinking postmodern and practising in the enlightenment: Managing uncertainty in the treatment of children and adolescents, Feminism & Psychology 24(2):271-291 · May 2014,

Zhou, A sex difference in the human brain and its relation to transsexuality, Nature. 1995 Nov 2;378(6552):68-70, (most commonly cited brain study by trans-activists; post-mortem studies of six transsexuals’ brains with no control for fact that all had been on trans-sex hormones for many years prior to death)